I am posting this later than normal, but as you already know there were a lot of mathematicians in the last 10 days and it was a little harder for me to keep up with everything. In my last posts I have wrote only about 6 mathematicians each, but because there were so many I have to write now, you will get more than 6.

Also I want to say thank you very much for everyone that encouraged me to do this event and didn’t let me stop and give in the middle. It was an incredible project and I would like to do some other similar things in the future. Let me know if you have any ideas in the comment box bellow. So, let us continue the list of mathematicians born in October:

**1. Nicolaus Bernoulli **born on 21 October 1687 in Basel was a Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the *Bernoulli family*. In his early years he worked on probability theory in law. Then he focused on differential equations and geometry. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in March, 1714. His most important contributions is *St. Petersburg Paradox* ( a paradox related to probability and decision theory in economics). He also communicated with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Leonhard Euler.

**2. Erasmus Reinhold **born on 22nd October 1511 was a German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation ( In contrast to the limited modern definition, “mathematics” at the time also included applied mathematics, especially astronomy). Both Reinholds’s Prutenic Tables (astronomical tables helped to disseminate calculation methods of Copernicus throughout the Empire) and Copernicus’ studies were the foundation for the Calendar Reform by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582.

**3. Aleksandr (Alexander) Semenovich Kronrod **born on 22nd October 1921 was a Soviet mathematician and computer scientist, best known for the Gauss-Kronrod quadrature formula which he published in 1964. Earlier his computations informed theoretical physics. He is also known for his contributions to economics, specifically for proposing corrections and calculating price formation for the USSR. Kronod played an important role in building the first major Russian computer, Relay Computer RVM-1, though he liked to say his colleague N.I. Bessonov was the sole inventor. Kronrod had a profound interest in artificial intelligence known in the USSR at the time as heuristic programming. He is well known for saying, *“chess is the Drosophila of artificial intelligence.” This quote graces the top of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence “Games & Puzzles” chess home page.*

**4. Alexander Osipovich Gelfond** born on 24th October 1906 was a Soviet mathematician. Gelfond obtained important results in several mathematical domains including number theory, analytic functions, integral equations and the history of mathematics, but his most famous result is his eponymous theorem: “If α and β are algebraic numbers (with α≠0 and α≠1), and if β is not a real rational number, then any value of α^β is a transcendental number.” Before Gelfond’s works only a few numbers such as e and π were known to be transcendental. After his works an *infinite number of transcendentals* could be easily obtained.

**5. Marcel-Paul “Marco” Schützenberger **born on 24th October 1920 was a French mathematician and Doctor of Medicine. His work is counted amongst the early influential French academic work in information theory. His later impact in both linguistics and combinatorics is reflected by two theorems in formal linguistics and one in combinatorics. The mathematician Dominique Perrin credited Schützenberger with *“deeply [influencing] the theory of semigroups”, and “deep results on rational functions and transducers,” amongst other impacts on mathematics.*

**6. Charles Joseph Colbourn **(born October 24, 1953) is a Canadian computer scientist and mathematician, whose research concerns graph algorithms, combinatorial designs, and their applications. In 2004, the Institute of Combinatorics and its Applications named Colbourn as that year’s winner of their Euler Medal for lifetime achievements in combinatorics.

**7. Raúl Arturo Chávez Sarmiento** (born 24 October 1997) is a Peruvian *child prodigy in mathematics*. At the age of 11 years, 271 days, he won a bronze medal at the 2009 International Mathematical Olympiad, making him *the second youngest medalist in IMO* history. He won a silver medal at the 2010 IMO, a gold medal (6th ranked overall) at the 2011 IMO, and again a silver medal at the 2012 IMO.

**8. Ivan Morton Niven** born on 25th October 1915 was a Canadian-American mathematician, specializing in number theory. Niven completed the solution of most of Waring’s problem in 1944. This problem, based on a 1770 *conjecture by Edward Waring*, consists of finding the smallest number g(n) such that every positive integer is the sum of at most g(n) nth powers of positive integers. David Hilbert had proved the existence of such a g(n) in 1909; Niven’s work established the value of g(n) for all but finitely many values of n.He was president of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) from 1983 to 1984. He received the MAA Distinguished Service Award in 1989. He has an Erdős number of 1.

**9. Ferdinand Georg Frobenius** born on 26th October 1849 was a German mathematician, best known for his contributions to the theory of elliptic functions, differential equations and to group theory. He is known for the famous determinantal identities, known as *Frobenius-Stickelberger formulae*, governing elliptic functions, and for developing the theory of biquadratic forms. He was also the *first to introduce the notion of rational approximations of functions*, and gave the first full *proof for the Cayley–Hamilton theorem*. He also lent his name to certain differential-geometric objects in modern mathematical physics, known as* Frobenius manifolds*. Group theory was one of Frobenius’ principal interests in the second half of his career. One of his first contributions was the proof of the Sylow theorems for abstract groups. Earlier proofs had been for permutation groups. His* proof of the first Sylow theorem* (on the existence of Sylow groups) is one of those frequently used today.

**10. Antoine Deparcieux** born on 28th October 1703 was a French mathematician. In 1746, he published “An Essay on the Probabilities of the Duration of Human Life”. Deparcieux analyzed in detail empirical observations. As a mathematician and physicist, he can be considered, after Halley and Struyck, one of the founders of the estimation of longevity and all the issues surrounding that concept.

I wanted to squize all mathematicians left in this post, but I will make it to long. So I decide to post another one tomorrow. Thank you for understanding and enjoy! Any feedback is appreciated so use the like and share buttons!

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